Chemical Plastic

June 10, 2011

Warn from Health Experts: Common Chemicals May Lead to Autism

Guide: Autism experts are calling for greater scrutiny of chemicals found in the environment, which could potentially lead to autism, a type of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Environmental health officials say lead, mercury and other chemicals that were once thought to be safe in small amounts may have a profound effect on the developing brain.

“We live, breathe and start our families in the presence of toxic chemicals mixtures and constant low-level toxic exposures, in stark contrast to the way chemicals are tested for safety,” said Donna Ferullo, Director of Program Research at The Autism Society.

“Lead, mercury, and other neurotoxic chemicals have a profound effect on the developing brain at levels that were once thought to be safe,” she said.

They also have concerns about a chemical present in plastic water bottles, because doctors say it could interfere with an expectant mother’s hormones.

Autism spectrum disorders are being diagnosed at unprecedented rates, partly because of improved diagnostic tools and criteria, but also a host of other factors including what mothers-to-be are exposed and consequently their unborn children too, said Irva Hertz-Piccotto, Chief of the Division of Environmental Health at the University of California, Davis, and a faculty member at the Mind Institute.

About 1 in 110 children in the United States has autism, a group of developmental disorders that lead to impairments in behavior, communication and socialization. The cost of autism is staggering: $3.2 million for the care of a person with autism throughout his or her life; behavioral therapy can be hard to come by and be very limited,  and most medications don’t help much.

Studies have strongly suggested a genetic component in the cause of autism, but it’s becoming clear that genetics alone isn’t the whole story; there could be interactions between susceptibility genes and environmental chemicals.

Recent research from her group, appearing in the journal Epidemiology, showed that prenatal vitamins taken prior to conception seem to interact with certain metabolizing genes that are inherited.  Those women who did not take the vitamins, and had the high-risk genotypes, were more likely to have a child with autism.  Still, this was a small study limited in scope, and more research should be done to confirm these findings.

The central nervous system of the fetus is sensitive to a wide range of chemicals, Hertz-Piccotto said.  Hormones, such as estrogens and androgens, are essential for proper brain development. Endocrine-disrupting compounds need more research, she said. Flame-retardant chemicals called PBDEs interfere with the body’s hormones.  Even though many of them are no longer used in manufacturing, they can hang around in the environment and the human body for a long time.  The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is aware of concerns about these chemicals and is working on accessing substitutions (see the action plan).

Bisphenol A, present in plastic food packaging and water bottles, among other products, is another big concern, she said, because it could interfere with the body’s natural estrogen system, antimicrobials added to soaps, toothpaste and other products can artificially enhance androgenic activity.

“That means that they could potentially play a role in autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders,” Hertz-Piccotto said.

Moreover, many children with autism spectrum disorders have abnormal immune responses. The chemical messengers in the immune system interact with the receptors in the brain, so chemicals that affect immunity could also be implicated in autism.

Thyroid dysfunction is common in children with autism that psychiatrist Dr. Suruchi Chandra sees, even though that’s not part of the classical symptoms of the condition.  She believes the abnormalities are due to the thyroid hormone disruptors such as BPA and flame retardants.

“Thyroid hormone is critical for brain development in early life, and even small alterations in hormone levels can have serious consequences; long-lasting and perhaps irreversible consequences in terms of brain function,” she said.

Air pollution from traffic has also been shown to have associations with autism, studies have shown. Maternal conditions could partially result from chemicals in the environment.

February 28, 2011

Do you Know How are Plastics Produced?

Plastic is a polymer (which are large molecules), that consists of a long repeating chain of smaller molecules, which are called monomers.

Monomers are made of atoms, and easily extracted from organic sources, and fall into the class of chemicals known as petrochemicals. 

Plastics are produced by a process called polymerization.

In this process, thousands of monomers are joined together to form a polymer chain.

Common monomers used in the production of plastics, such as vinyl acetate, styrene, butadiene and vinyl chloride, are extracted from crude oil or natural gas.

In the world of “plastics”, there are two main types – thermosetting plastics and thermo-plastics.

Both of these main types are produced by pouring liquid monomers into molds, and they undergo a process called polymerization.

The thermosetting plastic type is permanent once molded, while the thermoplastic type will melt under heat.

The monomer liquid is superheated during the molding process, which causes polymerization to occur, and we end up with a product that is uniform and solid.

Some of the well known plastic products on the market today include: Formica, Teflon, Tupperware, Nylon, Synthetic Rubber and PVC.

Plastic is the most widely used synthetic in the world.

January 30, 2011

Choose your Water Bottle of Plastic very carefully

Choose your water bottles very carefully in order to prevent chemicals in the plastic from leaching into your water. So, which plastic water bottles don’t leach chemicals?

Plastic water bottles are very convenient for carting water around when we are on the go, as they don’t break if we drop them. However, it is worth paying attention to the type of plastic your water bottle is made of, to ensure that the chemicals in the plastic do not leach into the water.

If you taste plastic, you are drinking it, so get yourself another bottle. To be certain that you are choosing a bottle that does not leach, check the recycling symbol on your bottle. If it is a No.2 HDPE (high density polyethylene), or a No.4 LDPE (low density polyethylene), or a No.5 PP (polypropylene), your bottle is fine.

The type of plastic bottle in which water is usually sold is usually a No.1, and is only recommended for one time use. Do not refill it. Better to use a reusable water bottle, and fill it with your own filtered water from home and keep these single-use bottles out of the landfill.

Unfortunately, those fabulous colourful hard plastic lexan bottles made with polycarbonate plastics and identified by the No.7 recycling symbol, may leach BPA. Bisphenol A is a xenoestrogen, a known endocrine disruptor, meaning it disturbs the hormonal messaging in our bodies.

Synthetic xenoestrogens are linked to breast cancer and uterine cancer in women, decreased testosterone levels in men, and are particularly devastating to babies and young children. BPA has even been linked to insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. For more of the science on the effects of BPA on our endocrine system etc.

See these studies: Environmental Health Perspectives Journal. Nalgene, the company that manufactures the lexan water bottles also makes #2 HDPE bottles in the same sizes and shapes, so we have a viable alternative. Order one at Nalgene. Unfortunately, most plastic baby bottles and drinking cups are made with plastics containing Bisphenol A.

In 2006 Europe banned all products made for children under age 3 containing BPA, and as of Dec. 2006 the city of San Franscisco followed suit. In March 2007 a billion-dollar class action suit was commenced against Gerber, Playtex, Evenflo, Avent, and Dr. Brown’s in Los Angeles superior court for harm done to babies caused by drinking out of baby bottles and sippy cups containing BPA. So, to be certain that your baby is not exposed, use glass bottles.

Check the recycling numbers on all your plastic food containers as well, and gradually move to storing all food in glass or ceramic. Store water in glass or brass if possible, and keep it away from direct sunlight.

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